OPTICAL DISK with PROJECTOR
for demonstration experiments and for group work
fitted with magnetic mounts
version of the Harti disk is a modernization of well-known classic instrument,
and facilitates many expeeriments in geometrical
projector be may be run on either A.C. or D.C. current of
6 V 5 A, which is obtainable from almost all P.G.A. power supply units;
we suggest the acquisitin of a trnsformer (cat. 2403.10) with 220 V primary,
or a vesatile and economical power supply , or a vesatile and economical power
supply unit such as our cat. 2403.35 which in addition to the 6 V 5 A output ,
also has outputs for 2, 4, 6,8,10 12 V 5A in both A.C. and D.C.
of the case: 470 x 300 x 80 mm.
: 5.3 kg.
OPTICAL DISK WITH PROJECTOR
and description as above.
for the power supply requirements of 4401.50:
, input 220 V output 6 V 5 A
tension power supply unit
2408.00 or 2403.35)
parts for 4401.50:
of optical elements
optical elements with magnetic attachment , in box.
bulb, 6 V, with rectilinear filament.
and triple-slit screen, with magnetic attachment
lens, plani - convex..
up of a section of U-shaped aluminum channel 1100 mm long, divided into two
parts of lengths 700 mm and 400 mm, hinged together at one end.
channel may hold a number of sliders on which the accessories are mounted. The
graduated scale gives rapid and accurate readings of the slider positions.
division of the channel into two sections hinged together makes the bench
especially useful when the light beam is deviated prims or mirrors.
dimensions 50 x 50 mm, with 10 mm diameter hole for shaft-mounted
accessories. The slider may be used on the optical bench, as well as
directy on the work surface.
AND MIRROR HOLDER
In black plastic. Accepts all circular lenses and mirrors of 50 mm diameter
MIRROR, SCREEN AND SLIDE HOLDER
black plastic holder is fitted with a spring clip and accepts accessories with a
maximum thickness of 4 mm.
plastic table is fitted with a clamp for the blocking of the prism.
plastic, holds up to 4 candles with maximum diameter of 7 mm (cat.4415.12)
of 10 candles for candle holder (cat.4415.11)
up of two blocks of translucent material with dimensions 25 x 20 x 10 mm,
separated by a sheet of opaque foil. If the two sides of the blocks are
subject to uneven illumination, the blocks show a difference in colour.
on a plastic base, with window for observazion.
reduced-size filament lamp bulb of 6V5A; may be oriented in all directions
within a 20° cone. The metal housing is painted black and is finned for
better heat dissipation. Diaphragms may be directly attached to the lamphouse,
with the special spring clip mount.
with lamp soked, two-pole power cable with banana plugs, 6V 5A lamp bulb, base
for raising the lamphouse to the height of the accessories, diaphragm with
circular aperture, single-slit diaphragm.
and sare parts for 4415.15:
Lamp bulb, 6V 5A, spare
transformer 6V 5A,
OPTICAL BENCH WITH ACCESSORIES
1 optical bench, cat. 4415.00
6 slider, cat. 4415.01
4 hlders for flat mirrors, screens, slides cat. 4415.07
prism table, cat. 4415.09
candie holder , cat 4414.11
package of 10 candies, cat. 4415.12
jolly phometer , cat 4415.13
light source projector, cat 4415.15
light bulb, spare cat. 4415.16
transformer 6 V 5 A, cat. 2403.10
metal screen, cat. 4416.00
plane mirrors 50 x 50 mm, cat. 4430.02
concave mirror f = 100 mm, cat. 4431.02
concave mirror f = 200 mm. cat. 4431.04
convex mirror f = 100 mm , cat. 4435.02
convex mirror f = 200 mm, cat. 4435.04
biconcave lens f = - 100 mm, cat. 4441.02
biconcave lens f = - 200 mm, cat. 4441.04
biconcave lens f = - 300 mm, cat. 4441.06
biconvex lens f = + 100 mm , cat. 4445.02
biconvex lens f = + 200 mm, cat. 4445.04
biconvex lens f = + 300 mm, cat. 4445.06
biconvex lens f = + 500 mm, cat. 4445.07
equilateral prism , cat. 4450.14
right-angle prism, 90°, 45°, 45°, cat. 4450.21.
white one side, black the other. Dimensions 150 x 100 x 1 mm. Complete with plastic base, but is also compatible with screen holder
SCREEN WITH CROSS WIRES
white one side, black the other.
150 x 100 x 1 mm
circular aperture E
7 mm, with fine crosswires. Complete with plastic base, but is
compatible with screen holder 4415.07.
section aluminum tubular bed is supported on steel feet with levelling screws.
A scale with millimeter divisions is silkscreened along one side of the bed
which has a working length of 160 cm. The proposed accessories are mounted on
the bench by means of the special saddies (cat. 4418.01). A minimum of five
saddies is suggested.
designed for the universal optical bench (cat.4418.00) , this saddle is locked
on the bench by means of a unique spring clamp. The saddie is easily moved
along the bench by turning a knob on the side, allowing for the exact
alignment of the mounted accessory. The inner faces of the saddie which ride
on the bench surface are covered with a thin layer of felt for smooth slinding.
The position of the accessory mounted on the saddie may be read from the scale
on the bench, through a circular plexiglas window engraved with a reference
line. All types of elements may be mounted on the saddie, as long as these are
fitted with a shaft of E
AND SCREEN HOLDER
plastic circular baffle plate 130 mm diameter with 10 mm shaft. Suitable for
slides of 5 x 5 cm.
four candles. Mounted on 10 mm shaft.
of 10 candles for candle holder cat.4418.24
LENS AND MIRROR HOLDER
unmounted circular lenses and mirror up to 100 mm diameter. The lens is held
by 3 radial spring grips. Mounted on 10 mm shaft.
platform 70 mm diameter, with a locking arm to hold prism.
on 10 mm shaft.
plexiglas, frosted on one side. With 10 mm shaft.
300 x 200 mm.
one face, matt black the other; oven bakeed enamel paint. Mounted on 10 mm
300 x 200 mm
wood, with space for 8 items useful for the storage of accessories on Ø
10 mm stems, used with the optical bench.
4418.50 OPTICAL BENGH WITH ACCESSORIES
1 optical bench, cat, 4418.00
6 sliding saddles, cat 4418.01
2 diaphragm older, 4418.03
1 set of diaphragms, cat 4418.04 - 4418.11
1 iris diaphragm, cat 4418.13
1 adjustable slit diaphragm, cat. 4418.15
1 projection dioptric lamphouse, cat. 4418.18
1 spare lamp bulb, cat. 4415.16
1 trasformer 6V 5A, cat. 2403.10
1 lens and screen holder, cat. 4418.21
1 single candle holder, cat. 4418.23
1 multiple candle holder, cat. 4418.25
1 package of candles cat. 4418.26
1 prism table, cat. 4418.29
1 translucent screen, cat. 4418.31
3 accessories raks, cat. 4418.60
1 grease spot photometer, cat. 4423.00
1 set of mounted lenses:
1 biconvex lents f 50 mm, cat 4448.01
1 biconvex lents f 100 mm, cat 4448.02
1 biconvex lents f 150 mm, cat 4448.03
1 biconvex lents f 200 mm, cat 4448.04
1 biconvex lents f 300 mm, cat 4448.05
1 biconvex lents f 500 mm, cat 4448.06
1 biconcave lens f 50 mm, cat. 4449.01
1 biconcave lens f 100 mm, cat 4449.02
1 biconcave lens f 200 mm, cat 4449.03
1 biconcave lens f 500 mm, cat 4449.04
1 plane mirror on mount, cat. 4430.05
1 double-angle concave-convex mirror, cat. 4430.10
1 equilater prism, cat. 4450.14
1 right-angle prism (90°, 45°,45°) cat. 4450.21
1 right angle prism ( 90°,60°,30°) cat. 4450.32
1 pair of polaroid filters, mounted, cat. 4453.90
4419.00 OPTICAL DISK
for use with Optical Bench
The disk which is used for experiments in geometrical optics is made up of
circular disk, matt white face, with a set of magnetically attached optical
elements. One or more parallel light rays passing along the surface of the
disk are used to study the behaviour of light rays passing through the
optical elements. The four quadrant disk is gratuated in degrees, and
mounted on a diameter 10 mm stem for application to sliding saddle 4418.01.
The set of trasparent plexiglas optical elements, magnetically attached,
includes: circular block, semicircular block, right-angle isosceles with
different focal lengths, one divergent cylindrical lens, one trapezoidal
prism, one plane mirror. A deformable mirror, magnetically attached, is also
Spare parts for 4419.00
Set of optical elements cat. 4401.51
4422.01 JOLY PHOTOMETER ON STEM
Same characteristics as 4422.00 but mounted on nickel-plated Brass stem for
use with Optical Bench 4418.00
GREASE SPOT PHOTOMETER
A cardboard disk with a parafilm spot at its centre. Mounted in plastic
screen diameter 130 mm, shaft diameter 10 mm.
In glass, back surface silvered. Mounted in metal frame on 10 mm shaft.
Comprised two mirrors, one concave and the other convex, mounted in the same
circular frame on a diameter 10 m shaft.
Focal length; 100 mm
Diameter of the mirror: 42 mm
UNMOUNTED SPHERICAL MIRRORS
In optical glass with back surface silvered. Diameter 50 mm
4431.02 Concave mirror f = 100 mm
4431.04 Concave mirror f = 200 mm
4431.06 Concave mirror f = 500 mm
4435.02 Convex mirror f = 100
4435.04 Convex mirror f = 200
4435.06 Convex mirror f = 500
SPHERICAL LENSES, UNMOUNTED
lens, f =50 mm
Lente biconcava f =100 mm
Biconcave lens, f = 150 mm
Biconcave lens, f = 200 mm
Biconcave lens,f = 250 mm
Biconcave lens, f = 300 mm
4441.07 Biconcave lens, f = 500 mm
4441.08 Biconcave lens, f = 1000 mm
4445.01 Biconvex lens, f = 50 mm
4445.02 Biconvex lens, f = 100 mm
4445.03 Biconvex lens, f = 150 mm
4445.04 Biconvex lens, f = 200 mm
4445.05 Biconvex lens, f = 250 mm
4445.06 Biconvex lens, f = 300 mm
4445.07 Biconvex lens, f = 500 mm
4445.08 Biconvex lens, f = 1000 mm
SPHERICAL LENSES, MOUNTED
Of optically worked glass; mounted in black plastic circular baffle plate
engraved with the focal length of the lens. On diameter 10 mm stem.
Diameter of lens 42mm, white glass.
4448.01 Biconvex lens, mounted f = 50 mm
4448.02Biconvex lens, mounted f = 100 mm
4448.03 Biconvex lens, mounted f = 150 mm
4448.04 Biconvex lens, mounted f = 200 mm
4448.05 Biconvex lens, mounted f = 300 mm
4448.06 Biconvex lens, mounted f = 500 mm
4449.01 Biconcave lens, mounted f = 50 mm
4449.02 Biconcave lens, mounted f = 100 mm
4449.03 Biconcave lens, mounted f = 200 mm
4449.04 Biconcave lens, mounted f = 500 mm
PRISM, CROWN GLASS OPTICALLY WORKED
Lenght of triangle side 25 mm, height 25 mm
Lenght of triangle side 32 mm, height 32 mm
ACRYLIC PLASTIC BLOCKS
For refraction experiments. Clear, polished blocks, free from stria and
bubbles; with white back to show the path of the light througt the block.
Thickness of blocks is 9.7 mm except 4451.70
4451.54 Biconvex block
87 mm Long, 105 mm radius of curvature
4451.56 Biconvex block
87 mm Long, 63 mm radius of curvature
4451.58 Biconvex block
87 mm Long, 105 mm radius of curvature
4451.60 Triangular block
90° 45° 45°, sides 90 x 45 mm
4451.62 Circular block
90 mm Diameter
4451.64 Semicircular block
90 mm Diameter
4451.66 Trapezoidal block
with 60° and 45° prism ends.
4451.70 Rectangular block
Dimension 75 x 50 x 20 mm
4453.10 SET OF COLOUR FILTERS
Set of seven acetate filters mounted in slide frames. Overall size 50 mm x
Apertue size 24 mm x 36 mm
4453.20 NEWTON COLOUR DISK
For the verification of the additive mixture of the spectral colours. The
disk is divided into coloured sectors, and when placed in rapid rotation,
causes the viewer to perceive the disk as white.Disk
diameter 250 mm
4453.45 DOUBLE FISSURE
Climbed on on telaietto by slides, among two lastrines of glass.
Dimensions of the telaietto 50 mms x 50 mms. Space among the two fissures
4453.90 PAIR OF POLARIZING FILTERS
Circular filters of diameter 40 mm, mounted in circular baffle plates in
black plastic, with diameter 10 mm stem for application to optical bench
(cat.4418.00). Baffle plate mounts with 180° scale for reading of polarizing
plane to an accuracy of 2.5°.
4454.95 DIRECT VISION SPECTROSCOPE
For the examination of absorption and emission spectra, absorption by
coloured solutions, etc. Metal body tube 113 mm long x 25 mm diameter with a
slit at one end and x 2 eyepiece at the other end, with glass lens and
blazed 300 linee/mm grating. Supplied with removable curvette mount and two
square-section cuvettes for examination of coloured solutions.
Spare parts for 4454.95
CUVETTES 10X10X45 mm pack of 10
Readings to 0.1°
Telescope with x 15 Ramsden eyepiece
This robust, easy to use instrument is particulary suitable for the
classroom. The graduated disk has 0.5° divisions and is fixed to the table;
double ended vernier scale attached to telescope reading to 1' of arc.
Telescope and table have fine-adjustment scews, and claing scews; the
collimator is mounted on a fixed support. The telescope and collimator are
fitted with achromatic objectives with a focal lenght of 178 mm, and a 32 mm
clea apertue, with rack and pinion focusing; mounting of telescope and
collimator permits precise levelling of optical axes and squaring to axis of
rotation. The telescope is fittedwith a x 15 Ramsden eyepiece and crossline
graticule which can be oriented with respect to the vertical; the collimator
is fitted with a precision slit with variable amplitude.
The spectrometer table is equipped with levelling screws and reference lines
to facilitate the correct positioning oh the prism and grating. The
spectrometer is supplied complete with basic accessories: dense flint prism;
prism clamp; diffraction grating holder: eyeglass for reading of angles;
tommy-bar adjustment of optical axis; hardwood case; instruction sheets.
ACCESSORIES AND SPARE PARTS FOR 4455.01
For the replacement of the normal eyepiece of the spectrometer when the
optical system is to be eligned. Complete with 12V 24W lamp
4455.04 Spare lamp for Gauss eyepiece
4455.05 Transformer for Gauss eyepiece
4455.06 Double-face mirror
4455.08 Dense flint prism, spare
DIFFRACTION GRATING REPLICA
Overall size 50 mm x 50 mm
aperture soze 36 x 24 mm
mounted between two glass protecting plates.
4455.10 Diffraction grating, 600 lines/mm
4455.11 Diffraction grating, 300 lines/mm
4455.12 Diffraction grating, 80 lines/mm
4455.13 Diffraction grating, 100 lines/mm
4455.14 Diffraction grating, 1200 lines/mm
4455.40 PLATINUM WIRE
Glass rod 75 mm long with enclosed platinum wire 38 x 0.4 mm length x
diameter; sutable for flame tests.
4455.50 SET OF SALTS FOR FLAME TESTS
For production fo flame spectra to be observed with spectrometer.
The following items are housed on a handy plastic tray:
- Porcellain crucible
- Plate of blue glass
- Plate of green glass
- Glass rod with platinum wire
- Glass bottle with stopper
- Bottle of calcium chloride 50g
- Bottle of sodium chloride 75g
- Bottle of lithium chloride 50g
- Bottle of barium chloride 90g
- Bottle of potassium chloride 50g
- Bottle of strontium chloride 50g
- Bottle of copper chloride 50g
- Bottle of lead chloride 50g
- Bottle of iron chloride 50g
- Bottle of silver chloride 50g
For the production and observation of the visible spectrum of the gas or
metal vapour contained in the tube.
4460.10 Spectrum lamp, cadmium
4460.11 Spectrum lamp, helium
4460.12 Spectrum lamp,mercury
4460.13 Spectrum lamp, sodium
4460.14 Spectrum lamp, neon
4460.20 SPECTRUM LAMP HOUSING
With cylindrical shield. Mounted on d. 10 mm stem for application to
standard base (cat. 2101.10). Complete with cable for connection to
SPECTRUM TUBES FOR SPECTRAL ANALYSIS
Straight pattern, to use with holder cat. 4470.50 and high tension power
supply unit cat. 2406.04 or 2407.01
4470.10 Spectrum tube, helium
4470.11 Spectrum tube, neon
4470.12 Spectrum tube, argon
4470.13 Spectrum tube, mercury
4470.14 Spectrum tube, hydrogen
4470.15 Spectrum tube, oxygen
4470.16 Spectrum tube, nitrogen
4470.17 Spectrum tube, carbon dioxide
4470.50 SPECTRUM TUBE HOLDER
Comprise of PVC rod on plastic base with sliding supports
LASER He - Ne
- EASY TO HANDLE
- POWER SUPPLY UNIT INCORPORATED
- MAY BE MODULATED TO ACOUSTIC FREQUENCIES
- LOW OPERATING NOISE LEVEL
Our He-Ne laser is a light-weight and complee unit which includes both the
laser tube and the power supply unit. The beam is not influenced by room
conditions since there is no problem of mirror adjustment which normally
render the of laser tedious and time consuming.
Wavelenght: 0,6328 µm
Mode : TEMoo
Output power : >= 2 mW; +/- in modulation
Warm-up time: 50% when switched on, and 100% within 15 minutes.
Beam diameter at 1/e2 points: approx.
0.59mm 0,3 mW
Operating noise (between 1 Hz and 100 kHz) < 0.5% rms
Modulation input impedence: approx. 8
at 1 kHz
Modulation frequency: audio frequencies
Modulation tension: less than 5Vp.p.
Modulation factor: > 2.5% at 1 kHz with modulation tension 4Vp.p.
Operating temperature: 10°C - 40°C
Average tube life: approximately 10.000 hours of corret operation.
Complete with pilot light, mechanical beam shut off, key operated switch,
polaroid filter, pair of cockets for modulation entry and mains cable with
19 mm plug.
Spare part for 4479.00
4479.12 Laser tube
THE LASER AS A TEACHING TOOL
The laser is a versatile instrument for the school, both from an operational
as well as from a teaching viewpoint. It facilitatcs correct and simple
experiments with diffraction and interference, witich and in the
comprehension of the complex nature of light and its effects on matter. The
laser is used because of the spatio-temporal coherence of the light beam, a
property which natural light does not posses.
Within the cntext of geometrical optics, the laser supplies a narrow bean of
light even over great distances without a decrease of intensity. The
fundamental laws of optics may thus be obtained with an accuracy difficult
to reach with convetional light sources.
The light bean emitted by the laser may be enlarged by means of a single
lens without changing the optical characteristics. Two or more beams may be
produced with the use of a beam splitter, and these may be directed onto the
desired objects. In this way, for example, 3-dimensional photography
(holography) is carried out: holography is presently finding many fields of
The extreme coherence and monochromaticy of the laser are proving useful in
basic scientific applications and aerospace technology. To cite only one of
the many examples, a comunications network based on laser with modulated
intensity is being studied as a means of establishing a simple and efficient
information trasmission system. The laser beam acts as a support for
transmission in the same way as a high-frequency radio wave. In the
classroom, this can be repeated using a tape recorder, a photocell, and an
amplifier with a loudspeaker.
ACCESSORIES FOR THE MODULATION OF THE LASER BEAM
For the modulation of the laser beam, it is necessary that information to be
transmitted is fed to the power supply unit by an audio amplifier with an
output impedance of 4-8
The P.G.A. EUROPA SUD low frequency amplifier (cat.2501.03) is suitable for
this purpose, together with a microphone (cat.2503.12); other alternatives
are a signal generator (cat.2290.03), or tape recorder or radio with output
impedance of 4-8Ω.
The receiver should be composed of a photocell detector (cat.4480.01) and a
second low frequency amplifier (cat. 2501.03)
The laser beam may also be modulated externally to the power supply input,
for example, by means of the light reflected from a mirror mounted on a
LOW FREQUENCY AMPLIFER WITH BUILT-IN LOUDSPEAKER
(see cat. 2501.03)
MOVING COIL MICROPHONE
(see cat. 2503.12)
TUNING FORK ON RESONANCE BOX (see cat. 4317.30)
MIRROR FOR TUNING FORK
(see cat. 4317.35)
LOW FREQUENCY SIGNAL GENERATOR AND AMPLIFIER
(see cat. 2290.03)
magnetic attachment, complete with connecting leads. Used for the
demodulation of the laser beam, together with amplifier 2501.03
ACCESSORIE FOR ABOVE:
In iron, with securing scew. To be mounted on 10 mm diameter rod.
Truncated cone base ( see cat. 2101.10)
chronium plated brass rod, diameter 10 mm, length 25 cm ( see cat..
Slide-frame mounted accessorie (available in kit as cat. 4485.20)
- single tapered slit
- double tapered slit
- diffraction grating, 80 lines/mm
- diffraction grating, 300 lines/mm
- wire gauze
- diaphragm with holes of 1.0mm, 0.62mm, 0.9 mm, 0.29 mm diameter +/- 10%
- series of 6 slides with 1,2,3,4,5 or 6 slits with nominal amplitude of 0.6
mm and separation of 0.2mm
- two polaroid filters
- grating with 40 lines/cm, amplitude of lines 0.20 mm, spacing 0.06mm
- grating with 40 lines/cm, amplitude of lines 0.10 mm, spacing 0.16mm
- grating with 80 lines/cm, amplitude of lines 0.03 mm, spacing 0.10mm
- no. 6 lenses with lens holder
- steel pins and needles with needle holder
- adjustable slit diaphragm
- glass plate
Material for mounted
- 3 slide/lens holder
- package of plasticine
The following are among the many experiments that can be performed with this
- Interference of two light beams from two slits
- Passage from interference to diffraction
Diffraction by a slit (Fraunhofer)
- Simultaneous diffraction and interference
- Optical activities
- Observation of a hologram