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RADIOACTIVITY AND ABSORPION OF NUCLEAR RADIAZION APPARATUS

This apparatus includes a radioactive source, a PVC base which functions as support for a series of metal plates of different natures, a Geiger tube in a PVC housing, and an impulse counter with incorporated power supply outlet for the Geiger tube.

The set has the following characteristics:

Radiation level absolutely below the danger level;

Simple and quickly used;

Allows for repeated digital counts;

Identifies the optimum counting zone of the Geiger tube;

Used fot study of radioactive decay via a series of repeated counts: Poisson distribution and its approximation;

Relative efficiency of a counter and its determination as a function of the distance between source and counter tube;

Measurement of the absorpition of nuclear radiation by sufficiently dense substances. Determination of the laws of absorption varying both the type and number of absorbers. INtroduction to the statical concept of absorpition vross section;

On the basis of the type of source employed, it is possible to arrive at a number of conclusion regarding the non-nuclear reactions which give rise to to radiation identical to that emitted directly from the nucleus;

The apparatus occupies a small volume, with the radioactive source fixed either in its protective lead case or removed and placed in the special-purpose hole.

In the second case, counts may be functions of the angle between the reference axis and the Geiger tube-source axis. The scattering effect may be observed in the presence of metal plates.

 

 

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THE COMPLETE APPARATUS COMPRISES:

 a) 4832.00

Accessories for the study of radioactivity and absorption of nuclear radiation

includes:

base in black PVC, with scale 0-270 mm x 1 mm

sliding support for G-M tube

fixed support for radiation souce

sliding suport with channelling for mounting of absorbes

set of absorbes in different materials (alluminium, iron, lead, brass) of 2 mm thickness

b) 4832.50 magnetic blackboard for histogramms

In metal sheet, dimensions600x400mm

Complete with 100 pieces of magnetic- mounting for construction of histograms, tree arrows, and a plastic plate with magnetic mount on which to write the title of the hitogram

c)  Geiger-Muller tube cat. 4825.00

Detecs alpha, beta and gamma particles 

d) Radioactive source radium 226 cat. 4820.20

A small lead castle is provided with the source and this is mounted in a hardwood box with hinged lid. Strength of the source : 5µ Ci (185kBq)

Emission: alpha, beta, gamma

e) electronic timer scaler cat. 2234.00

f) time base selector cat. 2236.80

g) radioactive source lifting tool cat. 4821.00

complete with instructions for the introduction to nuclear radiation counting and analysis

 

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TUBI A CATODO CALDO

 

 

 

HOT CATODE TUBES

4850.00 Universal Stand
Designed to accommodate the updated range of Teltron Tubes and accessories, the Universal Stand provides easy access to all plug and socket connections and gives a clear view of the experimental zone which is projected at a 20° angle. The tube can be rotated 5° to either side or vertical. A Filament Protection Circuit is an integral part of the Stand. Excessive AC or DC voltage will cause a trip condition which automatically resets after rectification of the fault condition. The Stand is mounted on 3 rubber feet and weighs 570g. All Tube connections are made on the Stand itself.

 

4850.02  Helmholtz Coils
These magnetizing coils are supplied in pairs, each mounted in a slot in the Universal Stand. A metric scale within the Stand lets the coils be set in the Helmholtz configuration or in any other configuration up to 150mm maximum spacing between coils.

A single coil can be set in the front of the Stand to provide a field coaxial with the tube. Each coil has 320 turns of 22 Swg. enameled copper wire with a mean diameter of 138 x 10
-3m. The coil provides a field of 3000 A/m (12vDC 1.0A) for continuous operation. A field of 4500 A/m (18v 1.5A) can be provided short term

 

4850.04 SECONDARY COIL

Used together the Perrin tube and helmholtz coils to produce a cross magnetic field. The field can be used to introduce horizontal deflection of a cathode ray beam, the basic principle of the cathode ray oscilloscope. lissajous figures may also be produced.

 

 

4850.06 Luminescent Tube

establishment of the cathode ray gun (diode electron gun)

excitation of luminescence by ultraviolet light.

excitation without ionization, no charge emitted

persistence and infrared quenching

The metastable state of excitation

Different colors, analysis spectroscope

Introduction of concept of excitation potentials

The Luminescent Tube comprises a simple diode electron gun in a cylindrical neck and three mica flags coated with different phosphors mounted on a metal support and located in the center of an evacuated spherical glass bulb.

The diode gun, a tungsten wire “hairpin” filament and a cylindrical anode, projects a wide beam of cathode rays into the experimental zone. This beam is intercepted by the phosphor screens. All connections are made on the Universal Stand.
Power supply
Anode voltage, 2000-5000V, DC
Maximum filament voltage, 7.5V.
Anode current at 4000V, 150µA.
Recommended Accessories
TEL EV 14 Power Unit

 

  

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4850.08 Perrin Tube

evidence of the particular nature of cathode rays

establishment of negative sign of charge

 introduction of the “electron” as an atomic particle

electron deflection sensitivity studies

the concept of a “time-base”

operation of a cathode ray oscilloscope

simple Lissajous’ figures

 

The diode gun, a tungsten wire “hairpin” filament and a cylindrical collimating anode, projects a narrow beam of cathode rays into the evacuated experimental zone. This beam traverses the sphere to impinge on the luminescent screen in a spot about 4 mm in diameter. The narrow beam may be deflected in a vertical plane to enter the Faraday cage by using Helmholtz Coils, TEL 2502. A further and horizontal deflection can be obtained using Secondary Coil, TEL 2507 thereby constructing a simple cathode ray oscilloscope. All connections are made on the Universal Stand.

Power supply
Anode Voltage, 1500-5000 V DC
Maximum filament voltage, 7.5V.
Anode current at 4000V, 1.8mA.
Beam current at 4000V, 4µA
Plates supply at 350VDC

Recommended Accessories
TEL EV 14 Power Unit
TEL 2502 Helmholtz Coils
TEL 2507 Secondary Coil
TEL 2810 Sweepgen
TEL 2811 Hivolt Bias

 

 

 

4850.10

4850.10 Maltese Cross

linear propagation of cathode rays

deflection by a magnetic field, a particle-nature effect

electrostatic charging, image distortion, a particle-nature effect

introduction to electron optics, inversion magnification, reduction, aberration, a wave-nature effect (use one coil of TEL 2502)

comparison of cathodic stream and electromagnetic radiation

postulation of the de Broglie theory of duality

 

The diode gun, a tungsten wire “hairpin” filament and a cylindrical anode, projects a wide beam of cathode rays into the evacuated experimental zone. A beam of light from the hot filament is also projected into the experimental zone. Comparisons can be made of the respective shadows cast on the luminescent screen by the interception of both beams by the Maltese Cross. All connections are made on the Universal Stand.
Power supply
Anode voltage, 2000-5000V DC
Maximum filament voltage, 7.5V
Anode current at 4000V, 150µA  

 

 

 

4850.12 TUBO PER LA DETERMINAZIONE DEL RAPPORTO e/m

deflessione magnetica ed elettrostati ca degli elettroni

determinazione dei rapporto etc.

specchio elettronico a spirali trocoidali

distribuzione delle velocitŕ e focalizzazione magnetica

Uno schermo fluorescente č posto sulla traiettoria dei fascio elettronico. Tale schermo č munito di una quadrettatura in centimetri che consente la misura della deviazione prodotta dal campo magnetico creato dalle bobine di Helmholtz (Cat. 4850.02) e dalle placchette di deflessione elettrostatica.

Noto il campo si ottiene una valutazione della carica specifica dell'elettrone: etc.

Alimentazione dei filamento: max. 7,5 V

Tensione anodica: 2000-5000 V c.c..

Corrente anodica: circa 1 mA

 

Accessori per 4850.12:

Sostegno universale (Cat. 4850.00)

Coppia di bobine di Helmholtz (Cat. 4850.02)

Alimentatore di alta tensione (Cat. 2406.04 oppure 2407.01)

Alimentatore di bassa tensione (Cat. 2408.00)

 

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4850.14

4850.14 Planar Diode

 phenomena of thermionic effect in vacuum

the Edison effect and space charge

for fixed temperature, charge flow depends on electrode potential difference

saturation” current depends on filament temperature

evidence of unilateral flow of charge

determination of e/m by magnetron method (use TEL 2502)

application of diode as rectifier

characteristic curve la/Va, Three Halves Power Law

filament temperature studies, Richardson-Dushman and Stefan

 

The Planar Diode consists of a pure tungsten wire filament and a circular plate within an evacuated, clear glass bulb, the inside of which has been made electrically conducting to eliminate external electrostatic field effects. All connections are made on the Universal Stand. The performance of the large geometry configuration has been improved by attaching to one of the filament leads a circular backing disk to provide a more uniform electric field between the cathode and anode electrodes.
Power supply
Optimum plate voltage, 300V
Maximum filament voltage, 7.5V
Typical plate current, 0.6mA

Recommended Accessories
TEL 2801E H.V. Power Unit
TEL 2003/2030 Scan Unit with console for automatic data acquisition

 

 

 

4850.16

4850.16 Planar Triode
(Not Pictured)

establishment of direction of charge flow

application as an amplifier

concept of a cathode ray gun (diode electron gun)

application as an oscillator (use TEL 2502 coils)

anode and mutual characteristic curves

 

The Planar Triode is essentially the Planar Diode with a parallel wire grid interposed between the cathode and anode electrodes. All connections are made on the Universal Stand. As with the diode the form of construction corresponds with the conventional triode symbol. Performance of the large geometry configuration has been improved by attaching to one of the filament leads a circular backing disk to provide a more uniform electric field between the cathode and anode electrodes.

Power supply
Optimum plate voltage, 300V.
maximum filament voltage, 7.5V.
Typical plate current, 0.6mA.

Recommended Accessories
TEL 2801 H.V. Power Unit
TEL 2003/2030 Scan Unit with console for automatic data acquisition.

 

 

4850.18 Planar Triode
(Not Pictured)

establishment of direction of charge flow

application as an amplifier

concept of a cathode ray gun (diode electron gun)

application as an oscillator (use TEL 2502 coils)

anode and mutual characteristic curves

The Planar Triode is essentially the Planar Diode with a parallel wire grid interposed between the cathode and anode electrodes. All connections are made on the Universal Stand. As with the diode the form of construction corresponds with the conventional triode symbol. Performance of the large geometry configuration has been improved by attaching to one of the filament leads a circular backing disk to provide a more uniform electric field between the cathode and anode electrodes.


Power supply
Optimum plate voltage, 300V.
maximum filament voltage, 7.5V.
Typical plate current, 0.6mA.

 

 

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4850.20

4850.20 Electron Diffraction Tube


In 1922 de Broglie combined Planck's quantum energy idea with an analysis of the Theory of Relativity and proposed that since waves sometimes act as particles perhaps particles sometimes act as waves with a wavelength of h/mv. Three years later Davisson and Germer and later that same year J. J. Thomson's son provided experimental confirmation that electrons do act as waves.

With the Electron Diffraction Tube one can verify the de Broglie hypothesis and establish the dual nature of the electron. In addition, one can calculate the interatomic spacings of carbon, (the diffracting material in the tube).



The Electron Diffraction Tube emits from an indirectly heated, oxide coated cathode, a narrow converging beam of electrons. The inside surface of the end of the tube has a luminescent screen deposited on it. A micro mesh nickel grid, onto which graphite has been deposited, lies across the exit aperture of the electron “gun” (see figure 1). As the electron beam penetrates this carbon target, the electrons are diffracted into two rings corresponding to separations of the carbon atoms. One can show that the wavelength of an electron l=dsinq. Additionally, from the geometry of the tube (see figure 2), we see that q=D/2L where q»sinq for small angles, D is the diameter of the ring and L is the length from the graphite target to the luminescent screen. Combining the two equations one can show that the diameter of the rings is proportional to (V)
-1/2.


A graph like the one in figure 3 is obtained by plotting (V)
-1/2 vs. ring diameter. From the slope of the graph the interatomic spacings of carbon can be calculated.

Save money when you purchase
the complete Electron Diffraction system

 

4850.21

4850.21 Fine Beam Tube (Gas-Filled)

narrow visible electron beams

velocity focusing and gas multiplication

mean free path studies and unstable beams

primary and higher orders of ionization

loss of energy in a spiral path

measurement of “assumed circular path” e/m

secondary emission and phosphor screen “blanking”

introduction to plasma technology

 

The electrons emitted by the indirectly heated oxide coated cathodes are projected from the two identical guns in the form of a narrow pencil beam. These beams can be accurately traced within the helium gas as a green glow due to the emission of energy during the collision processes experienced by the electrons. The angle of projection from the guns can be modified by applying a potential across miniature deflecting plates located just beyond the emission apertures. Two coaxial parallel rings are etched into the glass envelope at a spacing of 80mm to help measure the beam diameter. All connections are made on the Universal Stand.

Power supply
Anode Voltage, 0-300 V DC
Anode Current, 10-20mA.
Heater Voltage, 6.3 V, 0.3 A.
Deflector Voltage, 0-60 V DC

 

 

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Copyright © 1999 ICARO DIDATTICA S.r.l.
Modernized Limited liability company: 14 febbraio 2007